MR. A. S. GRUNSPAN, BSc., M.Inst.C.E., A.C.G.I. (Member), having voiced his great appreciation of the paper and congratulated the lnstitution upon it, said that welding had come to stay definitely. The results of numerous tests that had been carried out were such as to convince even the most conservative that welding afforded a very excellent and economic means of joining parts of metal together. But, be that as it may, we must not think that we knew very much about welding; we really knew very little. The designer would have to give very careful consideration to temperature stresses in the weld and in the parent metal arranging his joints in order to rcduce the temperature effects to the absolute minimum. Another problem, which was perhaps less understood, was that of contraction in the weld and the stress resulting therefrom: longitudinal contraction was perhaps not so important as transverse contraction. Some very excellent examples of plate girders had been illustrated by Mr. Helshy; in welding plate girders, it was very important to weld the stiffeners on first and the flanges afterwards, otherwise distortion would occur-which was further evidence of the great importance of studying contraction. Mr. Grunspan asked for Mr. Helsby’s comments and experiences in regard to the welding of stiffeners in Staggered fashion or back-to-back; he was surprised to hear the Germans considered that staggering was the better method, for he had always understood that staggering was not
advisable and that the back-to-back method gave rise to less distortion due to temperature effects.