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The Board of the Swedish Concrete Association has commissioned the author to work out a method of testing plain cement on the building site without adding of aggregates, as sand or gravel, and to conduct research work into thc possibilities of a short period test. The following is a preliminary report of the tests carried out during 1921-1922.
LEGISLATION in regard to housing in the Netherlands, may be said to date from 1901. In that year the Dutch Housing Act was passed. Before 1901, however, many local authorities in Holland had dealt, to an extent, with the problem of housing in their respective areas, and there had been much criticism of the housing conditions generally, particularly in the great centres of population. The general standard of housing accommodation in the Netherlands, it will be generally admitted, is much inferior to that in England, in every particular, and the demands of the people, it would appear, are more easily satisfied, not only in regard to the superficial area of the dwellings, but also in regard to the planning and to the provision of the many conveniences regarded as essential in English homes.
Sir Charles T. Ruthen
IN the design of steel frame buildings it is usual to adopt a “factor of safety” of four, and many people think that this means that four times the ordinary load upon the building would cause failure. This is, however, by no means the case, and it is very
difficult to say how many times the ordinary load upon the building would cause failure. Fortunately failures in practice are extremely rare-the author does not remember seeing particulars of a single failure during the past twenty years-and we therefore are unable to learn much as to the actual strength of steel frame buildings from an analysis of the loads and stresses in a building that has failed.
Ewart S. Andrews