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To transfer loads of structures through soft upper layers of soil to harder strata below, piling is currently adopted.
L. D. Turzynski
A method is proposed for estimating the elastic lateral instability load of beams taking into account the possibility of premature compression flange failing by local buckling. This introduces the principle of a hypothetical or transformed section which is made locally at every stage of the loading through the application of the concept of effective compression plate width. Using a relation for section transformation developed from the experimental results in the light of relevant theoretical work, it was found that the procedure suggested gave reasonable estimates for the critical loads of beams in which there is an interaction between the local and lateral buckling modes.