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The conditions encouraging the growth of industrialized building and the initiatives which are giving it momentum are first reviewed, after which comparisons are drawn with conventional building. The effects on architects, engineers and building labour are examined, followed by the factory problems of precision, tolerances and programming. It is suggested that although structural analysis can be simpler, joints can cause serious design problems. The various design criteria of joints are examined and a list is made of the requirements to be met together with comment on the resulting problems.
R. D. McMEEKIN
Acomputer programme, written in Fortran, to obtain an analytic Fourier series solution for skewed stiffened plates, loaded uniformly, is presented. Various combinations of parameters were tested. Convergency was examined by comparing solutions with different numbers of harmonics. The paper may remind the structural engineer about the ease of communicating with an electronic computer through compiler languages.
The ease with which oil can be distributed allows considerable latitude in the choice of sites for oil terminals. This has led, in the post-war period, to the development of natural deep water harbours and to the use of crude oil tankers with displacements well in excess of 100,000 tons. The berthing of such vessels has called for reconsideration and amplification of design data which were previously largely empirical. Recordings of velocities and impacts of vessels berthing at British Petroleum’s crude oil terminal at Finnart in Scotland are assisting in the rationalization of fender design, and have also provided a measure of the hydrodynamic
mass associated with a berthing vessel. The amount of energy which has to be absorbed when large vessels berth even at modest velocity has led to the introduction of long stroke fenders and flexible berthing dolphins of large deflexion in order to protect both the vessel and the berth. Careful attention is also given to the disposition and strength of mooring facilities due to the magnitude of the wind forces on unladen tankers. These factors, together with other considerations peculiar to the design of berthing structures for large tankers, are described.
G. E. DENT