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The relation of the ultimate load to working load is an essential factor in any design consideration. To determine the margin of safety available, it is particularly important to be able to (1) calculate and predict the ultimate load; (2) take into account the effect of other conditions or factors likely to influence the strength during the life of the structure. This effect is sometimes accounted for by a partial safety factor. D.N. Nwokoye
The Study Group was formed in 1970, when considerable interest was being shown in carbon fibres by most branches of the engineering profession.
In a previous paper the plastic behaviour of a practical hollow rectangular section was investigated, and graphs were presented from which the section’s ultimate resistance could be evaluated under the combined effect of biaxial bending and axial force. A procedure was also suggested by which the additional presence of an axial torque could be accounted for. H. Shakir-Khalil