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A common means of forming a rigid joint between universal beam and column sections is to weld an end-plate to the beam end and then to bolt to the column flanges. Tests on models of he tension region of beam-column moment connections joined in this manner, and also complete joints, have shown that the behaviour of the beam tension flange force upon the end-plate and column flanges can be represented by isolated T-stubs. Typical modes of failure for this type ofjoint are discussed relative to experimental observations, and the yield-line method is then used to predict column flange and end-plate flexural yield loads. Good agreement was achieved with test results. A limit state design method is proposed for extended end-plate joints having four bolts in the tension region, and from which stiffening requirements can be readily assessed where necessary. J.A. Packer and L.J. Morris
The need for experimental work in connection with lateral loading has been explained in Part 1. There is no less a need for a suitable design method based on experiment and, where possible, experience, that can be used in the limit state revision of CP lll . Part II discusses the possible design approaches that could make use of the data now available. B.A. Haseltine, H.W.H. West and J.N. Tutt
The large cooling towers being built today are quite exceptional structures being, in proportion, considerably thinner than an egg shell but approaching 200m in height and lOOm in diameter. Practice has outstripped both theory and research and there are wide national differences in approach. The relevant design parameters are reviewed, namely, wind pressure, including wind induced vibrations, thermal gradient, self-weight and moments in the shell. Comparative calculations were carried out varying the value of one parameter at a time and considering the effect on concrete and steel stresses. The influence of the modulus of elasticity used in calculations of thermal effects is discussed and illustrated. M. Diver and A.C. Paterson