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The Structural Engineer

A general curved tendon element is defined, the shape of which can be varied either to simulate the parabola, cubic parabola and sine curve elements discussed in current literature or to provide some other acceptable configuration for use in formulating a continuous tendon profile. Expressions are derived for the equivalent loading components of the straight and the general curved tendon elemenfd, both types possessing a linear variation of prestressing force.Particular expressions are also given for the parabolic element which is in common use. A general method for evaluating the equivalent load system of a prestressing tendon for a beam of non-uniform cross-section is described and illustrated by a worked example. The validity of a linear variation of prestressing force in the general curved tendon element is proven in the Appendix. B.K. Catchick

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The Structural Engineer

The design method for composite frames of steel and concrete given in Part 5 of the Bridge Code uses effective column lengths based on elastic theory, which is strictly not applicable at ultimate loads. Details are given of tests on eight composite columns, elastically restrained about one or both axes, in a purpose-designed rig of capacity 2MN, in which axial load is applied through crossed knife-edges. The ultimate loads, deflections and end moments were found to agree well with computed values. The design method of BS 5400: Part 5 is shown to be satisfactory for these columns, for both the serviceability and the ultimate limit states. R.P. Johnson and I.M. May

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The Structural Engineer

An integrated form of yield line method incorporating finite elements and linear programming is developed and applied to some illustrative problems. The method is simple to operate and provides an upper bound to the collapse load of the continuous slab. The method is a further example of a significant trend towards the solution of problems of engineering plasticity by mathematical programming. J. Munro and A.M.A. Da Fonseca

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