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Fig 1 shows a bar chart indicating the normal, classical design programme as given in the RIBA plan of works. This process is essentially linear, even though in practice it moves in progressive spirals within which decisions at one stage make it necessary to reconsider and refine decisions that were made earlier. The plan of work presumes a briefing stage (A and B), followed by the sketch plan stage which includes the town planning application at stage D. These are followed by working drawing stage which incorporates refinement of the design, sufficient detailing for quantities to be taken off, application for building regulations approval and, subsequently, the normal process of tendering, assessment of tenders, the placing of the contract and its execution. By and large subcontracts await appointment of the main contractor. I want to highlight three steps in particular that determine the time taken to get the design to tender stage.
Concrete is a variable material. Judgment of concrete acceptability is consequently probabilistic. The acceptance criteria stipulated in the British Codes as well as the ACI Code are reviewed. The efficiency of the respective acceptance tests is examined by means of the operating Characteristic curves. It is shown that the criteria of acceptance stipulated in ACI 318-77 involve a high risk of accepting substandard concrete (consumer’s risk), while the CP 114 criteria for designed mixes involve a high risk of rejecting good quality concrete (producer ’S risk). The CP 110 criteria involve a reasonably low level of risks to the two parties. However, the test is suitable for continuous assessment of concrete quality in large projects, but less efficient in small projects where concreting is performed at intermittent periods. The BS 5328 criteria, though applicable to small projects, result in a varying distribution of risk between the producer and the consumer, depending on the variability of the concrete. A set of acceptance criteria more suitable for small projects is proposed. The proposed criteria involve a level of risks similar to that of CP 110. H.W. Chung
A concrete with epoxide resin as the sole binder having a high compressive strength (150 MN/m2) and stiffness (40 GN/m2 at 70 °C) has been produced by a technique involving vacuum impregnation of a prepacked mould. Tests demonstrate satisfactory creep and fatigue performance. while vacuum impregnated epoxide resin concrete has been developed for the stator structure of superconducting turbogenerators, it is likely to be used in other applications, as it also has resistance to aggressive environments, impervious nature, low shrinkage, and electrical resistance. B.W. Staynes and J.S.H. Ross