Expansion joints on bridges have provided severe maintenance problems for bridge authorities throughout the world. Bridge engineers are increasingly endeavouring to design bridges as continuous structures, and not as simply supported structures, in order to minimise these maintenance problems. This paper explains the concept of integral bridges in which the deck is made continuous and also connected to the abutments, so that all expansion joints are eliminated. A design method is explained for a deck of composite construction using prestressed concrete bridge beams, and a demonstration design is presented. This design uses Y-beams, which are being introduced by the Prestressed Concrete Association to replace M-beams. The design method is straightforward and avoids the complication of calculating the effects of creep.
E.C. Hambly and B.A. Nicholson