Circular piles are used extensively, either individually or in groups, in the foundations of buildings, bridges, and other structures. In addition, they are used in the form of secant piling to form diaphragm walls. In many situations, they are subjected to a lateral load, particularly when being used as a retaining wall, and hence a horizontal shear is applied to the crosssection. Similarly, circular columns are used fairly frequently for bridge piers. They have to be designed for a lateral load due to impact or the effect of vehicle braking on the bridge.
J.L. Clarke and F.K. Birjandi