Author: Dias, W P S
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Dias, W P S
Partial safety factors (y-factors) first appeared as a coherent system for dealing with the uncertainties involved in structural design 30 years ago. For nearly a quarter of a century they have been a feature of at least some design Codes in the UK. They are now used for most main UK design Codes and many European Codes and are the approach adopted for the Eurocodes.
Professor A.W. Beeby
Though some engineers object, most modern structural Codes or design standards use partial safety factors, i.e. y-factors. With certain exceptions, there are generally two y-factors - yf for loads and ym for resistances.
The development of limit state design, based on partial safety factors, began in earnest with the formation of the European Committee for Concrete (CEB) in 1953. As far as many engineers are concerned, the limit state revolution is now all but over: permissible stress design is still in use, but most new Codes worldwide are based on the partial factor approach and it forms the basis of all the new draft structural Eurocodes.