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Precast beams acting compositely with in situ concrete deckslabs are a popular form of bridge construction. In the last 40 years, the use of this form has been extended to constructing multispan bridges on a span-by-span basis with movement joints at each support. Such joints have not performed satisfactorily because the penetration of road salts through them causes corrosion damage in these constricted areas of the bridge. Several methods of eliminating such joints have been evolved during the last 30 years; these are briefly described here. The deckslab continuity method, evolved by the author; is then presented. Its concept, design and applications are described with a view to engineers extracting maximum advantage from this powequl, yet simple, method of achieving continuity in multispan bridges. It is also shown that this method generally results in large economies as compared with the other methods and some savings even as compared with the undesirable 'jointed' span-by-span construction. A. Kumar
With the regulations now more than three years old, it is the view of those administering the regulations (i.e. HSE), that generally, designers have taken their duties seriously and have been most diligent in identifying the hazards associated with their designs. However, they have been less diligent in taking the issues forward and amending their designs to avoid the risk ie the first priority in the hierarchy of risk control: (1) avoid - alter the design; (2) combat at source - design in, details which reduce the risk ie provide lifting points for items which require lifting; (3) control the risk - provide protective measures i.e. introduce measures to protect the entire work force. The use of personal protective equipment should only be used as a last resort. CDM Task Group
Jonathan Porritt has a long track record of posing challenging questions about environmental degredation and how future resources are used, and this occasion was no exception. His lively presentation was a mix of sobering fact, wry humour, passion, and even anger which stirred, provoked and perhaps even educated his audience. Kathy Stansfield