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Design of flat slabs is usually based on separate considerutions of flexure and shear, with empirical rules similar to those used in design of beams and continuous slabs. Additionally, shear capacity of a flat slab has to account for its distinctive mode of failure known as 'punching failure' or breaking away of a portion surrounding the column from the rest of the slab. Provision against such failure is often the critical design requirement for flat slabs with or without openings adjacent to the columns. While links are normally provided to enhance the punching shear capacity, the current Codes of Practice stipulate limits on the loadcarrying capacity of flat slabs. Such limits govern the thickness of the slab and, therefore, have a direct influence on economy of construction. This paper examines the limits on loadcarrying capacity of flat slabs supported on internal and rectangular columns, which are given in BS 8110 and Eurocode EC 2, with the help of tests on slab specimens with and without openings. S.B. Desai
I would like a better explanation of the jacking of the cable saddles on top of the bridge towers. The cable saddles are on sliding bearings and presumably were preset away from their final position deliberately, so that, when the cables were installed, the saddle would move into its direct location. Was the saddle jacking used to control this process or to actually induce stresses into new suspension cables?
The environmental benefits of using waste materials in construction was identified as long ago as 1974. This paper describes the results of a project undertaken for the Department of the Environment, Transport & the Regions in which methods of utilising waste materials as alternative aggregates in structural concrete were explored. Three types of waste material were identified as potential aggregates: china clay waste, slate waste, and pulverised-fuel ash. IThe project investigated methods of utilising these materials as aggregate by low-cost processing and/or novel mix design. The results of the project were encouraging, since good quality concrete mixes were produced fron all three waste materials. A.K. Butler, D.S. Leek and R.A. Johnson