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Mr P. Beckman (F)
I congratulate the authors on producing a readable and concise paper on such a complex project. Converting or restoring an existing building can often pose a greater challenge to the structural engineer than a ‘fanciful’ hitech new structure. In the latter case, the architect’s or the engineer’s fancy can be modified, if necessary; with an existing structure, you have to deal with facts!
In current practice, estimating the effects of tunnel construction in soft ground beneath an existing building is usually a two-stage procedure, where interaction between the ground and the building is ignored. This paper describes a study of tunnelling-induced settlement damuge to masonry buildings, using a numerical model, in which interaction is included. 2-dimensional finite elements(FEs) are used with non-linear material models for the soil and for a masonry façade. The excavation of a tunnel is simulated, and the resulting damage in the façade, principally cracking, can be observed. This study concentrates on the effect of façade weight and stiffness and the horizontal location of the façade with respect to the tunnel axis. The study finds that increasing facade weight tends to increase damage, owing to the larger horizontal strains. Increasing facade stiffness, however, appears to reduce damage, since the differential settlements under the facade are inhibited.
G. Liu, Professor G.T. Houlsby and C.E. Augarde
Masonry is one of man's oldest building materials, its use stretching back for thousands of years. In about 2200 BC, when the Tower of Babel was being constructed, the writer informs us that the builders used brick instead of stone and tar instead of mortar, from which it is evident that masonry construction using stone and mortar was already well established as a building technique at that time. Since these ancient times, the basic principles of masonry construction have hardly altered, although there have been changes to the building and production processes and to the philosophy of masonry construction.