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The Structural Engineer

This paper reviews measurements of group induced dynamic forces and outlines a theoretical approach to estimate the vertical dynamic loading due to groups of people jumping or dancing together. It is applicable to the design of gymnasium floors, dance floors, stadium and theatre floors and balconies where audience dancing is anticipated. Although some of the parameters proposed are tentative, comparison of predicted loads with full-scale measurements is good. It is shown that the dynamic forces induced by a crowd jumping can be characterised by factors describing how energetic their dancing is and the quality of their co-ordination. Michael Willford, Ove Arup and Partners

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Author – Willford, Michael

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The Structural Engineer

Fourteen simply supported precast reinforced concrete floor slabs of 4.5m span and 900mm width were exposed to two standardised heating regimes used in fire resistance furnace tests. The tests were designed to show the effect of varying the slab thickness, type of concrete, imposed load, nature of fire exposure and soffit protection on the mid-span flexural deflection and axial movements of the slab ends. Measured deflections showed that during the 90 minute design period of fire resistance thermal bowing was dominant and the effect of the 1.5 kN/m2 design live load was small. The NPD hydrocarbon fire exposure caused a doubling of the flexural deflections achieved using the standard BS 476: Part 8 (now Part 20) fire exposure in the first 20 minutes of exposure. Some implications for the design of buildings are discussed by reference to design examples Gordon M E Cooke BSc, PhD, CEng, MIMechE, MICE, FIFireE Visiting Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, City University, London

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Author – Cooke, Gordon M E

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The Structural Engineer

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Author – Carpenter, John

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The Structural Engineer

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The Structural Engineer

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The Structural Engineer

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Price – £9

The Structural Engineer

Publish Date - N/A

Price – £9