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The paper describes the method of calculation of the buckling load of beams on flexible bearings due to the beam’s self weight. Methods are given that allow calculation of the bearing stiffness needed to prevent instability, as well as the additional curvature and additional stresses due to the growth of initial imperfections at loads less than the critical load. Methods of providing temporary support and of jacking beams into position are also discussed.
C.J. Burgoyne and T.J. Stratford
As the dynamic response of structures to dance-type loads is an increasingly important design issue, the frequency range of dance-type loads becomes an important consideration. It has been observed at a number of pop concerts that structural response to dance-type loads is at the beat frequency of the music and at an integer multiple of the beat frequency. Therefore, it is suggested that the frequencies of dance-type loads can be evaluated fmm the beat frequencies of music. Samples of 210 songs have been analysed, covering music fmm the 1960s to 199Os, including dance, indie, pop and rock music. The frequency range and distribution of these songs are given. The results show that 96.2% of the songs analysed fill into the range fmm 1.OHz to 2.8Hz and that there has been a linear increase of about 0.12Hz in the average frequencies of modern music from one decade to the next. Jumping tests have been conducted following music beats, and the frequency ranges for coordinated dance-type loads for individuals, for small groups (aerobics), and large groups ( pop concerts), are provided. The implementation of the results in design is also discussed.
D. Ginty, J.M. Derwent and T. Ji