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The Structural Engineer

Sir,-In the discussion on Mr. Gueritte’s illuminating paper, a speaker suggested that quicker hydration of the cement was partly responsible for the increase in strength of vibrated concrete. I think there is a great deal in this suggestion. The formation of colloid round a cement grain hinders the further access of water, and delays hydration. If this colloid could be removed, and fresh water allowed to reach the cement, a more uniform and richer colloidal solution would result, and, finally, a better gel. Increasing the period of mixing does this to some extent, and results in stronger concrete. The extreme rapidity and small magnitude of the motion in vibrating concrete is an infinitely more efficient method of tearing the colloid skin from its parent cement grain, and enabling fresh water to carry on the process of hydration. The formation of a very rich colloidal solution is shown by the quickness with which the concrete jellifies and stiffens enough for forms to be removed. If samples of vibrated andunvibrated concrete were tested shortly after casting, the vibrated concrete would show a very much higher percentage of water held chemically and colloidally, which is one way of expressing a stronger concrete. The reduction of voids does, of course, play its part; but is not responsible for all the increase of strength; and the rich colloidal solution forms a lubricant which facilitates compaction.

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The Structural Engineer

Mr. C.J. JACKAMAN (Member of Council) said that the Institution was very greatly indebted to the author of this Paper. He had listened with great appreciation to what the author had said, and it had given rise to a number of questiom in his mind, which he would refrain from asking because there would not be time to answer them. But the author had covered many if not all the most salient features relating to aerodromes. His paragraph headed "A Nationa1 Necessity" was most opportune, as were also his remarks on accessibility.

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The Structural Engineer

THIS paper gives a brief description of the methods adopted in the construction of ten blocks of 320 industrial dwellings, known as Evelyn Court, Hackney, and one block of 21 dwellings at Berners Street, Stepney. These flats are constructed in reinforced concrete, by patented methods which had not been used previously in this country. F.S. Snow

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The Structural Engineer

THE new building of the University of London, for which Mr. Charles Holden, F.R.I.B.A., of Messrs. Adams, Holden & Pearson, FF.R.I.B.A., is the Architect, and Mr. R. Travers Morgan, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Struct.E., the Consulting Structural Engineer, is situated on a lO 1/2 acre site in the Bloomsbury area. The portion at present in course of erection is the Senate House. This is situated at the South end of the site, and faces the British Museum. When completed, the total building will extend to the far end of Torrington Square, that is, the length will be nearly one quarter of a mile. In addition to the Senate House, visitors to the works will be able to inspect the foundations of the Tower, which joins the Senate House on its North side.

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The Structural Engineer

1. These recommendations embody the views of the Institution of Structural Engineers on the use in structural work of steel as specified in British Standard Specification No. 548. They are based on investigations carried out by the Institution.

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The Structural Engineer

The PRESIDENT said that the applause which had followed the reading of the paper indicated that the meeting as a whole had enjoyed it as much as he had. It had been made quite clear in the paper that the subject was a very difficult one, and it was a very pleasant departure from the usual procedure-for the Institution dealt with rather different subjects as a rule-to have a paper from so great an expert as Mr. Bennett, indicating how little we knew on the subject of sound.

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The Structural Engineer

This Panel of the Institution’s Concrete Sectional Committee was set up two years ago for the purpose of collecting and collating available information in regard to the sectional resistance of various strata, and the effect on existing formulae, and the carrying capacities of piles of varying design. The Panel has already submitted a Preliminary Report, which deals with the classification and investigation of strata, standardised driving test, and use of a rational pile-driving formula. In presenting this Report, however, it was explained that the Panel members desired to study further some systematic pile driving records, having found that previous records available hardly afforded the requisite information. To assist in the collection of the essential data, a Pile Record Sheet was prepared, which was published by the Institution in June last, a Journal notice being inserted inviting members to apply for copies for filling in particulars for furthering the Panel’s work.

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