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The Pont du Val Benoit, Liege, is a long stone bridge of five arches supported on four piers and two abutments, the footings of which, in poor soil, are anchored by means of a series of wooden piles, the heads of which project into the masonry. It was found, however, that the stream, especially at periodical flood time, produced disturbing scour, which was undermining the bridge supports. To remedy this, these supports have been enclosed in a type of cofferdam carried out thus : Reinforced concrete piles were moulded, 12 in. by 12 in. and 25 yd. long, which were driven close together round the footings, with a slight inward inclination. Owing to the unevenness of the ground a rather irregular enclosure was formed, but where the breach was considerable, the opening was blocked with flat bags of cement. - Le Constructeur de Ciment Armé. No. 56, 1924.
AS a very humble member of the great architectural profession, in addressing a few words to them upon the subject of the Institution of Structural Engineers, of which important body Sir Chas. declared that he had the honour to be one of the Vice-Presidents and in the presence of his respected President, he claimed with justifiable pride, that the architect was, in fact, the very earliest structural engineer mentioned in the history of the world.
Sir Charles T. Ruthen
One of the most versatile and utilitarian buliding products developed in America during the last fifteen years is the concrete stave. This unit is in reality a small flat slab, usually about 30 inches long, 10 to 14 inches wide and 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches thick, but it is known as a stave because it is laid up end on end, usually on
construction such as tanks, where it replaces the wood stave.