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The conditions encouraging the growth of industrialized building and the initiatives which are giving it momentum are first reviewed, after which comparisons are drawn with conventional building. The effects on architects, engineers and building labour are examined, followed by the factory problems of precision, tolerances and programming. It is suggested that although structural analysis can be simpler, joints can cause serious design problems. The various design criteria of joints are examined and a list is made of the requirements to be met together with comment on the resulting problems.
R. D. McMEEKIN
The winter of 1962-63 was in many parts of England and particularly in the south and west the most severe in living memory and in some areas temperatures fell below any previously recorded. Snowfalls were particularly heavy and the depth and weight of fallen snow added a further unusual hazard for many weeks.
Mr. T. N. W. Akroyd (Associate-Member) said Mr. Sutherland’s paper was mostimely. As the author had said in his introduction, whilst they had reached a state of relative complexity in the sampling and testing of clay soils, there had not, unfortunately, been the same progress during the last decade in the testing of cohesionless soils; but this paper, which was a thorough review of the subject, should stimulate interest and thought. But whilst they had been relatively inactive in the Western world, it appeared from recent literature that Russian activity might have provided some new ideas, which Mr. Akroyd would refer to later.