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The paper describes a method of estimating the elastic critical loads of multi-storey rigid frames unbraced against side-sway. A standard, linear elastic analysis is performed, choosing a defined loading pattern, and the critical load ratio is derived simply from the maximum sway index occurring in any of the storeys of the frame. The method gives estimates which are on the safe side, but always within 20 per cent of the correct result. This accuracy is shown to be sufficient for practical purposes. M.R. Horne
Continuous steel-concrete composite bridges develop longitudinal tensile stresses in their deck slab as a result of differential strains caused by shrinkage. Analytical procedures are described whereby the shrinkage stresses along continuous, non-uniform composite beams can be estimated. The accuracy of these predictions is assessed in relation to the results of a laboratory test on a two-span continuous beam. In addition, existing design recommendations are examined and typical distributions of stresses in medium span bridges are presented. A.E. Long and P. Csagoly
Mr. Gordon Rose's dilemma in establishing the capacity of load-bearing walls of old buildings to the satisfaction of Authority (April) has drawn further comment; Mr. Stephen Revesz (F) considers it is timely to air this issue and offers practical, commonsense suggestions drawn from experience. He writes: We have had to deal with similar problems when converting existing buildings. In most cases the floors were found to be just adequate for domestic loading (1.5 kN/m2) but had been in use as offices for a considerable number of years. The owners had controlled storage of papers or office machinery to avoid overloading by commonsense. Verulam