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The paper describes a method of estimating the elastic critical loads of multi-storey rigid frames unbraced against side-sway. A standard, linear elastic analysis is performed, choosing a defined loading pattern, and the critical load ratio is derived
simply from the maximum sway index occurring in any of the storeys of the frame. The method gives estimates which are on the safe side, but always within 20 per cent of the correct result. This accuracy is shown to be sufficient for practical purposes.
Continuous steel-concrete composite bridges develop longitudinal tensile stresses in their deck slab as a result of differential strains caused by shrinkage. Analytical procedures are described whereby the shrinkage stresses along continuous, non-uniform composite beams can be estimated. The accuracy of these predictions is assessed in relation to the results of a laboratory test on a two-span continuous beam. In addition, existing design recommendations are examined and typical distributions of
stresses in medium span bridges are presented.
A.E. Long and P. Csagoly
Professor M. R. Horne (F) : Dr. Wood has rendered an enormous service to structural engineers by the publication of this paper. The concept of effective length has been too loose a one as far as most engineers are concerned, and Dr. Wood has shown how powerful and exact a tool it can become. Its use is crucial for the design of column in no-sway frames, and its accurate exploitation for such frames, as opposed to its hitherto empirical application, must surely form the basis for any future design procedures.