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Computers and programs can be wonderful. Their misuse, however, can have enormously distressing consequences that may not be detected for years, and even then may not be fully realised. Please consider the following incidents, of which I have personal knowledge.
The President: The steel hull has been with us for a long time, and I understand that no disasters can be identified as resulting from lowered buckling resistance caused by welding or any other distortion. What use. then, will be made of the facts that Dr.
Carlsen has discovered? Will they simply permit us to carry on as we always have, albeit with a greater sense of security? Will they require extra measures to be taken to avoid the dangers in question? Or will they enable us to design hulls with adequate
security at lower thicknesses and, presumably, lower cost?
This paper considers the causes of masonry flue lining failures, mainly from tensile cracking of the outer face and/or compressive collapse of the inner face. Suggestions are offered as to both the most likely primary causes of failure in a range of commonly used lining materials, and ways of avoiding (or at least reducing the risk of) future failures, i.e. designing for durability. For freestanding linings operating within their tensile strength (very few), a series of design charts has been prepared to enable the maximum freestanding height of lift to be determined to avoid compressive
collapse and failure.