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The effect of various combinations of top and bottom loading on single-span slender deep beams (wall-beams) is investigated. The concrete beams were reinforced by a mesh of horizontal and vertical steel at both vertical faces in addition to main reinforcement in the tensile zone. The vertical reinforcement percentage was varied and the effects on crack development and ultimate shear strength were examined in relation to the design recommendations of the American Concrete Institute and the Construction Industry Research & Information Association. Professor A.R. Cusens and I.I. Besser
An equilibrium method of assessing the ultimate shear capacity of plate girders having openings located at any position along the compression diagonal of the web is presented. The studies present an extension of the Cardiff solution for predicting the ultimate shear of unperforated plate girders to those containing eccentric web holes. The results of 12 tests on model girders containing circular or rectangular holes is presented, and the proposed method is validated by comparing the measured strengths with those predicted by it. Finally, a rapid method of assessing the strengths of these girders is presented and is shown to be adequate. R. Narayanan and I.Y.S. Darwish