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The general procedure for determining the section properties of thin walled bars of open cross-section is discussed and a simplified procedure for determining warping constants developed. For hand calculations, the simplified procedure results in a significant reduction in effort. In general, however, even the simplified procedure requires automatic computation, and a suitable system of equations is presented. T.M. Roberts
An equilibrium method of assessing the ultimate shear capacity of plate girders having openings located at any position along the compression diagonal of the web is presented. The studies present an extension of the Cardiff solution for predicting the ultimate shear of unperforated plate girders to those containing eccentric web holes. The results of 12 tests on model girders containing circular or rectangular holes is presented, and the proposed method is validated by comparing the measured strengths with those predicted by it. Finally, a rapid method of assessing the strengths of these girders is presented and is shown to be adequate. R. Narayanan and I.Y.S. Darwish