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The general procedure for determining the section properties of thin walled bars of open cross-section is discussed and a simplified procedure for determining warping constants developed. For hand calculations, the simplified procedure results in a significant reduction in effort. In general, however, even the simplified procedure requires automatic computation, and a suitable system of equations is presented.
The effect of various combinations of top and bottom loading on single-span slender deep beams (wall-beams) is investigated. The concrete beams were reinforced by a mesh of horizontal and vertical steel at both vertical faces in addition to main reinforcement in the tensile zone. The vertical reinforcement percentage was varied and the effects on crack development and ultimate shear strength were examined in relation to the design recommendations of the American Concrete Institute and the Construction Industry Research & Information Association.
Professor A.R. Cusens and I.I. Besser