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The Structural Engineer

The Finsbury Avenue project (three phases) and the Broadgate project (four phases) on adjoining sites go to make a major area of urban renewal adjacent to Liverpool Street Station on the edge of the City of London. The client for the first is Rosehaugh Greycoat Estates Ltd., and for the second Rosehaugh Stanhope Developments plc. P.D. Skead

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The Structural Engineer

Structural steel frames have seen a major resurgence in the early 1980s, with a major shift in the market share of multistorey commercial buildings from in situ RC frames to composite steel frames. There remain many building types where in situ formed reinforced concrete will continue to be the appropriate solution. However, this paper concentrates on the multistorey buildings of the 1980s, where requirements of intense servicing within false ceiling zones in large open areas has created the opportunity for structural steel to flourish. J.J. Mathys

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The Structural Engineer

Dr. N. G. Bunni: The paper is a very interesting one. It provides some useful information to the design engineer on comparative costs of structural steelwork in the form of portal frames, lattice girders, trusses, and space frames, incorporating the nodus jointing system. Where space frames are concerned, however, an impression is given that those frames incorporating the nodus jointing system are typical of all space frames in respect of cost, weight, and size. (See last paragraph of p177, the legend in Fig l, the comment made in para.2 of p178, and later in item (g) on p181.) J.F. Horridge and L.J. Morris

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The Structural Engineer

Coastal dynamics is an all-embracing title for the complex interactions which take place in the coastal zone between water motions induced by tides and waves, seabed materials, natural coastal features, and man-made structures. This lecture considers the available models dealing with coastal hydrodynamic processes, discusses their assumptions, limitations, foreseeable trends in their development, and the extent to which full-scale data can verify the model predictions. Professor P. Holmes and K. Anastasiou

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The Structural Engineer

Mr Beadle’s ‘viewpoint’ is to be admired for its verve and possibly for the unrelenting nature of its attack on the Institution’s ‘establishment’, its ‘bureaucrats’, and Mr D. W. Lazenby (previous Chairman of the Associate-Membership Committee and of the Review Sub-committee) in particular. Unfortunately, before writing his article, it would appear that Mr Beadle, as a good technician engineer, has not done the necessary background research or studied the relevant Codes. As current Chairman of the Associate-Membership Committee, may I be permitted to correct some of the errors contained within his article and hopefully reduce some of the confusion that may have been created by it. Mr. Peter Brett

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The Structural Engineer

This paper presents comprehensive test data on the effect of glued steel plates on the first crack load, cracking behaviour, structural deformations, serviceability loads, and ultimate strength, of rein forced concrete beams strengthened with such plates on the tension face. The results show that plated beams have enhanced flexural stiffness which control cracking and deformation at all load levels until failure. However, the stiffening effect is much greater in controlling cracking; further, the structural effect is far greater than if the bar area had been increased by the same area as the plates. Provided the adhesives are chosen carefully and proper gluing techniques are followed, the plated beams show beam action and composite behaviour right up to failure. The glued plates can increase the ultimate flexural strength by up to about 15 %. There is, however, a limit to plate thickness beyond which premature shear/bond failure occurs without the beams achieving their full flexural strength, even though such beams still control cracking and deformation until failure. The paper suggests two tentative design criteria to ensure full flexural capacity and ductile failure of plated beams. R.N. Swamy, R. Jones and J.W. Bloxham

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The Structural Engineer

The paper discusses the use of structural fire engineering techniques as a method of satisfying the functional requirements listed in the 1985 revision of the England and Wales Building Regulations. C. Ian Smith

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The Structural Engineer

Since 1972, our profession has been divided over Codes of Practice between those who favour ‘limit state’ Codes based on partial safety factors, such as CP110, and those who prefer permissible stress Codes such as CP114. Today the argument about the merits of the two methods is no nearer resolution; CPl14 is still preferred by many engineers and is widely used, whereas the new partial factor Codes for masonry and steel (BS5628 and BS5950) are raising as much controversy in those fields as CPllO did in the field of concrete. It is not only structural engineers who question the philosophy of partial factors-civil and municipal engineers have strongly supported moves to retain permissible stress Codes, and their interests must not be forgotten.

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The Structural Engineer

Shortcuts in design It may seem to our readers, as it did to us, that we receive a large number of letters giving shortcuts to the design of reinforced concrete in bending. It appears, however, that we published only one letter on this subject last year, from Mr P. H. Gregory, which appeared in October in outline only, since it set out two programs for a ‘home’ computer. We have now received the following offering from Mr R. N. Morgan of Edinburgh: I have identified an expression that can be used for the direct calculation of A, that is applicable to the rectangular concrete stress block of CP 110 and also to the ‘Beeby’ stress block of BS 8110 as well as the so-called ‘exact’ rectangular/parabolic stress blocks applicable to both Codes. The derivation of the expression is enclosed for your information. Verulam

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