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The Structural Engineer

The basement excavation was 43m long x 18m wide x 9m deep with lift pit to 13m. Bounded by a London Underground tunnel with sewer under, a British Rail boundary wall, a piled adjacent building, and an access close, it was constructed within temporary works with tight restrictions on movements. S.P. Marchand

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The Structural Engineer

Mr A. K. Ghosh (F) How did you manage to secure Building Control approval of the roof structure?

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The Structural Engineer

Lime mortar was used extensively between the 15th and 18th centuries for bonding and surface dressing of masonry. Its supremacy as a building material continued until the late 19th century, when it was superseded by the arrival of Portland cement - and the availability of faster setting cement mortars and renders. Lachland McDonald

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The Structural Engineer

The design and construction of Westminster Station on the London Underground Jubilee Line project was both technically demanding and a complex undertaking. This paper is concerned with the design but not the construction. It sets out to describe the many and varied constraints imposed by the selected site,adjacent buildings and structures designed and built by others over the station whilst it was under construction. R. Hankin

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The Structural Engineer

Who can be a planning supervisor? The Construction (Design & Management) Regulations, 1994, place no restrictions on who may be appointed as a planning supervisor, provided they are competent to perform that function in relation to a particular project; indeed, the client may carry out the duties himiherself, provided that the person appointed has the necessary competence. However, the risk of sacrificing the objectivity that an independent planning supervisor brings to a project should not be overlooked.

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The Structural Engineer

Column or Beam Jack Kavanagh has written from Co. Kildare in Ireland: I write to try to clarify a difference in interpretation among some colleagues regarding design of cantilever columns. A lot of industrial warehousing here is constructed in precast concrete frames using fixed-base cantilever columns. BS 8110, section 3.8.4.1, states that columns design assumptions are as for beams (section 3.4.4.1).

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