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An hydraulic lime is one which will set and harden under water. This property is common to several well-known materials used for constructional purposes, notably Portland cement. The power of setting and hardening under water in the case of hydraulic lime is due to the formation during the burning of the lime of certain chemical compounds of silica, alumina and lime, of which tri-calcic silicate (3CaO.Si02) is the chief. Other compounds such as di-calcic aluminate (2Ca0.A1203) and certain ferrites of limes are also formed, but these act only as fluxes and aid in the combination of lime and silica, and in themselves do not increase the hydraulic properties of the lime. Henry Pooley, Junr.
The following simple problem in Graphic Statics is sfbpplied by The Bennett College, Sheffield, the Governor of which will give a prize of 10s. for the best solution. In allotting points, neatness will receive the same consideration as accuracy.
With the gradual raising of concrete engineering into a definite branch of science, the need for accuracy in every detail and, therefore, for testing at each successive step, has brought about the introduction of quite a large number of appliances used in controlling operations. Such checking of operations is required not only in connection with the primary materials-cement, sand, the larger aggregates and water-but the secondary adjuncts, including reinforcements, waterproofing or other ingredients, and also the mixtures at various stages, as well as the completed work, whether this be in the form of mass construction or moulded units.