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The Structural Engineer

The paper describes the renovation and reconstruction of listed buildings in an hirstoric city-their planning, temporary works, design, and construction. R.O.C. Seaman

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The Structural Engineer

The paper makes some observations and suggestions about developing an approach to conservation that includes the consideration of a building’s anatomy and structure. It describes the reconstruction of the Great Hall roof of Bedford School as an example of this approach. D. Sugden and C. Wymer

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The Structural Engineer

The Engineering Council recently published a discussion document ‘Continuing education and training’, the foreword of which states bluntly that data on continuing education and training in the United Kingdom are inadequate to form the basis for either a coherent policy or a plan for future action. Nevertheless, they state that the matter has become one of urgency by comparison with the efforts of some of our foreign industrial competitors who are very active in this field.

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The Structural Engineer

A simple diagonal stiffener is proposed as a solution to premature local flange and web buckling of plastically designed members in pitched-roof portals and continuous beams. This solution is developed from theoretical predictions and experimental results, which also show that existing Codes do not allow for certain effects which significantly reduce the rotation capacity of members under moment gradient, particularly the influences of span and coincident axial force. A new model is proposed for the interaction between local flange, local web, and lateral-torsional buckling of plastically designed members, which compares favourably with earlier test results. The stiffener arrangement approximately doubled the rotation capacity in five pairs of stiffened and unstiffened test specimens in which the critical modes were local flange or web buckling. Professor A.R. Kemp

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The Structural Engineer

The paper reviews classic examples of historic bridge refurbishment and then considers some of the difficulties that are arising in the refurbishment of the postwar concrete and steel bridge stock. From this the needs for research and development on the assessment of deterioration and on the strength and durability of remedial works are identified. Some suggestions for bridge designers are made. Jonathan G.M. Wood

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The Structural Engineer

The life of concrete structures in service depends not only on the production and placing of durable concrete, but also on proper design, detailing and construction methods, and on appropriate levels of maintenance. Past and present procedures for achieving this are reviewed, shortcomings identlped, and suggestions made for improvement in the future. G. Somerville

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The Structural Engineer

The Research Strategy Committee recently reported to the Building EDC and its report, A strategy for construction R&D published in December 1985, sets out recommendations for future requirements of the construction industry in the United Kingdom. This report has major implications for structural engineers and deserves close scrutiny, comment and support, to make research & development appropriate to the needs of the industry in the next 20 years. S.B. Tietz

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The Structural Engineer

The Albert Hall, central concert hall in the Bolton Town Hall, was completely burnt out on 14 November 1981. The opportunity was taken to construct a replica upper concert hall and to insert a 2lft-high festival hall of the same plan size between this hall and the service and ancillary areas situated at ground level. R.B. Leyland and D. Otter

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The Structural Engineer

The headache ball conundrum Professor Sir Alan Harris asked us in November to look at a paradox and examine our use of strain energy methods in structural analysis. His question concerned where the increase in potential energy comes from when a system consisting of a weight suspended by chain from an immovable support undergoes a reduction in temperature which raises the weight and reduces the thermal energy stored in the system. The response of our readers has been generous and varied. The first letter was from Mr L. Wadsworth of Worcester: I think that the answer is to be found by examining more closely the specification that the support for the suspension chain must be ‘immovable’. Nothing is immovable. If a practical, buildable system is considered it is immediately obvious that the change in temperature will affect the supports as well as the chain and ball. The legs of the supports will be longer than the chain (they must be to keep the ball off the ground!) and so they will shorten more than the chain. Thus, although the ball moves up relative to the suspension point, it will have a net downward movement relative to the ground, thereby preserving the theory of the conservation of energy. Verulam

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