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With the extensive use of reinforced concrete for modern bridge construction, semicircular, segmental and semi-elliptical arches of brick, plain concrete or stone are much less frequently adopted for new works than was formerly the case; but the revival of road transport occasioned by the use of the petrol driven vehicle brings home to the structural and civil engineer the importance of the problem of the stability of the arch. Arthur A. Fordham
MR. FORDHAM, in a brief preface to his paper, said that those who had studied modern books on arches, and who were perhaps not very closely interested in arch theory, had been rather frightened off the subject by the calculus and by the algebraic symbols.
In connection with the general scheme for the improvement of vehicular transport between the various districts of New York City and the outlying townships, four important new bridges are included. These are a high-level cantilever bridge across the Arthur Kill between Perth Amboy, New Jersey and Tottenville, Staten Island, N.Y., named "The Outerbridge Crossing;" a second high-level cantilever bridge also over the Arthur Kill between Elizabeth, N.J., and Howland Hook, Staten Island, N.Y., and named the Goethals Bridge. Both these bridges are approached by long viaducts of plate girder deck spans. Their location will be seen on the accompanying plan, and the general character of the bridges will be appreciated from the illustrations. The third bridge is over the Kill van Kull, and the fourth is the Hudson River Bridge of 3,500 feet span, which was described in considerable detail in our April issue. These four bridges, when all are opened for traffic, will represent an investment of closely one hundred million dollars, of which amount more than half has been already expended or contracted for.