Author: S. Fray
12 January 2013
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This Technical Guidance Note describes the concept of biaxial bending of columns, as well as the effect direct bending has on column design. The guidance given here can be applied to columns made from any material, be it steel, concrete, timber or even glass.
The subject of this guide is the design of non-composite steel beams to BS EN 1993-1-1 – Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. It covers both restrained and unrestrained rolled steel ‘I’ and ‘H’ beam sections. This is the first in the series of Level 2 guides and as such,the reader is assumed to be familiar with the concepts explained in relevant Level 1 Technical Guidance Notes. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
Admixtures are defined in EN 934-2:2012 as: ‘material added during the mixing process of concrete in a quantity not more than 5% by mass of the cement content of the concrete, to modify the properties of the mix in the fresh and/or hardened state’. This article discusses the reduction of embodied carbon in concrete, that admixtures can provide.