Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
1 May 2013
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
An understanding of what causes concrete to crack is important when inspecting new works or existing structures.
This note concerns the design of masonry walls subject to lateral loads (i.e. those used as a cladding element). It discusses material assessment, restraint, geometry and exposure conditions. Updated in October 2016.
Portal frames are a simple and very common type of framed (or skeleton) structure. Steel portal frames, in particular, are a cost-effective structural system to support building envelopes requiring large column-free spaces.