Author: J. Miller (Ramboll)
1st December 2015
First published: 1st December 2015
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J. Miller (Ramboll)
The greatest threats to the structural integrity of timber are from attack by rot and insect; therefore, in the damp British Isles, those working in conservation will often need to reach for the sketchpad to record and re-detail areas damaged by the effects of moisture.
Interventions to historic timberwork are also necessary when a building is converted. This happens, for example, when floor joists are reframed or loading is assessed for a new use. While philosophically this is different to a simple repair, it nevertheless requires similar skillsets to achieve the best, most sensitive results.
This article looks briefly at these matters, first from the aspect of conservation philosophy and material choice to establish some ground rules, and then by showing some of the details typically in use in the UK today. In order to focus on these, it does not consider survey and diagnosis.
The Timber Engineering Notebook series concludes by examining the use of glued-in rods for timber connections. The increased use of manufactured timber, such as glued laminated timber (glulam) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL), with improved mechanical properties and the ability to produce cross-sections of almost unlimited size,has driven the timber engineering industry to come up with improved connection systems. Glued-in rods and plates have been used in the UK as a method of connecting timber since the 1970s. They offer the possibility of creating concealed connections that are capable of
transferring large forces and moments with minimal slip due to their high stiffness.
This article focuses on the phenomenon of 'bond timbers', which were commonly built into masonry walls from the late 17th to the early 19th century. Guidance is offered to engineers who may encounter these when working on an existing building.
Replacement of stone on historic buildings may be required for numerous reasons.
These include age-related decay and weathering, poor workmanship in terms of material choice or setting, defective fixings, and structural failure. The main aim, in assessment, will be to retain the historic fabric where practical.
However, the decision to replace will depend to a great extent on having a clear understanding of the significance of the stone, both individually and within the context of the element that it is part of, its predicted life or durability and its cost.